Following that performance, Mozart replaced the symphony’s original Andante with another movement in the same tempo and the new version of the symphony was unveiled in a Paris concert on August 15. Program: MOZART “Paris” Symphony No. When Mozart returned to Salzburg, he tried his hand at several pieces in this new form, and the three MAGNIFICENT MOZART PROGRAM NOTES and he was writing a sheaf of piano concertos and other works. During the years 1782 to 1788, Sieber's catalog described it as "in the repertoire of the Concert Spirituel". Royal College of Music, London. Serge Koussevitzky conducted the first Boston Symphony Orchestra performances of the overture on December 1 and 2, 1944. Between October 1777 and the following March, Mozart, en route to Paris with his mother, made an extended and happy visit to Mannheim, home of the finest orchestra in Europe‑‑“an orchestra of generals,” Mozart called it. 41 in C major, K.551, Jupiter Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart A t the end of this concert, we will hear the Symphony No. Most listeners, though, have been content to wallow in this exquisitely wrought play of color, harmony, and misty melody without bothering to consider how much of the future was already implicit in this brief score. 25 in G minor, K. 183 I. Allegro con brio II. 29 in A Major, his third (and last) in that key, was finished in 1774. 41 is the last of a set of three that Mozart composed in rapid succession during the summer of 1788. festa italiana! One of the greatest miracles in the history of music is Mozart’s achievement in the summer of 1788, composing his last three symphonies all in the space of six weeks. One of the most “French” elements of Idomeneo in its original Munich production (though one that has not been included in many performances since) is the extended ballet at the very end of the opera, after all the singing has ended. But it is hardly likely that Mozart would have composed three whole symphonies at a time when he was in desperate financial straits if he didn’t have some hope of using them in a practical way to support his family. Program Notes, 2019-20 Season. Nothing came of his desire for nearly two years. 102. PROGRAM NOTES by Paul Schiavo WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART Piano Concerto No. ORCHESTRAL SUITE NO. This wonderful ballet music, symbolizing the harmonious resolution of the dramatic situation, shows us a Mozart reveling in the quality of the finest orchestra he had yet had at his disposal. Not only did he fail in obtaining a court appointment, but private commissions were also few and far between. 39 in E-flat Major, K. 543, The actual thematic matter is relatively conventional, more a matter of figures than melodies, but there is not development as such, and most of the working-out of ideas comes at their presentation. As of 1780 Mozart had not produced a full‑scale opera for five years (when he was still in his teens). Kansas Cty Symphony PROGRAM NOTES By Ken Meltzer 28 2018/19 Season kcsymphony.org | WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756-1791) Symphony No. Years later he recalled that when Mallarmé heard the music for the first time (apparently the composer’s own performance at the piano in his apartment), he commented, “I was not expecting anything of this kind! 29 in a Major, K. 201/186a. Both works have long been among the popular favorites of Tchaikovsky’s output—the 1812 overture with all its glorious bombast, and the Serenade for strings with its freshness and charm, its brilliant string writing, its graceful waltz of a character that Tchaikovsky made entirely his own, its richly expressive elegy, and its lively finale based on one of those Russian folk tunes that reiterates over and over a simple melodic gesture, allowing the composer to deploy his substantial skills as an arranger to ring the changes on the obstinate little fragment of tune that grows ever livelier. In 1875, Mallarmé tried to get his work published as “Improvisation du faune” in a literary anthology, again without success. Tchaikovsky spent most of the year 1880 in the country, part of the time installed at Simaki, a small house on one of the estates of his patroness, Nadezhda von Meck, where, as always, he carefully avoided personal contact with the woman whom he addressed as “Dearest Friend” in a long and intensely personal series of letters covering the years of her support. This is a piece from the heart and so, I venture to say, it does not lack artistic worth. Mozart in the Afternoon Series. 10, D. 936a, reveal three movements; the Andante on tonight’s program is the second. If Mozart had continued to work in that vein, the history of opera might have been very different. [10][11], Sadie notes, reflecting on Leopold's remark given above, that indeed "Mozart's Paris Symphony is quite noisy. 38 in D major, K. 504, was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in late 1786. Finally the Elector in Munich commissioned an opera from the young man, largely at the express wish of the musicians in his court (what enlightened leadership! The work is nicknamed the Jupiter Symphony, likely coined by the impresario Johann Peter Salomon. 99 was composed in early 1794 prior to Haydn's arrival in London. 39 in E‑flat major, K.543. Sadie notes, reflecting on Leopold's remark given above, that indeed "Mozart's Paris Symphony is quite noisy. WOLFGANG AMADÈ MOZART (1756-1791)Symphony No. Died December 5, 1791, Vienna, Austria. "[8], "The Autograph Manuscripts and Early Performances of Mozart's, International Music Score Library Project, "Mozart:Symphony No. The number of string players is (as usual) not specified in the score, but Sadie remarks that at the premiere there were 22 violins, five violas, eight cellos, and five basses. The dates of the first performances are unknown. 2 BARBER Adagio for Strings HAYDN Symphony No. His own poetry, he said, was inspired by “music proper, which we must raid and paraphrase, if our own music [poetry], is struck dumb, is insufficient.”, Debussy had already set a Mallarmé text as early as 1884. The work was performed with great success by the Société Nationale de la Musique on December 22 and 23 that year under the direction of the Swiss conductor Gustave Doret. Symphony No. [a] [3], The work was performed again at the Concert Spirituel on 15 August, this time with a new second movement, an Andante replacing the original Andantino in 6/8 (the latter, according to Deutsch, "had failed to please". Program: MOZART “Paris” Symphony No. The scurrying turn appears alone or in combinations, turning to unexpected keys after a sudden silence; the “hiccup” often comes as a separate response from the woodwinds to the rushing figure in the strings. Tickets for this event will be available for purchase at Woolsey Hall beginning at 6:30pm. The particular strengths of the Mannheim forces may well have turned his attention in the direction it was to take when he next composed an opera, for he wrote to his father in February, “I am eager to write [an opera]…but Italian, not German, and seria, not buffa.” Nothing came of his desire at the time, since Leopold was eager for the pair to get on to Paris, where (he was sure) fame and fortune awaited his son. Sadie remarks that this is the largest orchestra for which Mozart had yet composed in his career. 36 in C Major, K.425,“Linz”Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart When Mozart married Constanze Weber in August 1782, in Vienna, Mozart’s family saw her as their intellectual and social inferior. The public premiere took place six days later in a performance at the Concert Spirituel.[2]. The score calls for two oboes, two bassoons, four horns, and strings. [1], The work was composed in 1778 during Mozart's unsuccessful job-hunting sojourn in Paris. Of his 50-odd symphonies, produced between 1764 and 1788, the earliest ones are conventional but precocious, reflecting influences of Johann Christian Bach, Giovanni Battista Sammartini, and Joseph Haydn. The freshness comes in part from the delicacy of the instrumentation, which is filled with wonderfully new effects, of which the brilliant splash of the harp glissando over a dissonant chord at the end of the first flute phrase is only the most obvious. 31 PROKOFIEV Violin Concerto No. Duration is about 23 minutes. By this time Mozart was familiar with all the standard operatic styles in Europe; he had seen the latest works and the current state of the most established operatic genre, opera seria, the tradition of which extended back to the previous century, with its string of da capo arias alternating with stretches of secco (“dry”) recitative containing the barest musical content, its near‑total lack of choruses or even small ensembles, and its use of male castratos singing in the soprano register as the principal heroes. Although it was a sensation in Prague in the fall of 1787, the first Vienna performances the following spring did not attract enough attention; the piece was simply too serious to suit the taste of the court. The first of the three, in E-flat major, was completed on June 26; we have no record that any of these symphonies was ever performed in Mozart’s lifetime, though he is unlikely to have composed something as elaborate as a symphony (much less three of them) purely “on spec,” and he must have anticipated some concert series on which they would be heard. Mozart adhered to the prevalent Parisian style, featuring timbals, trumpets and – a first for Mozart – clarinets, but did not include a minuet. It was premiered in Prague on January 19, 1787, during Mozart's first visit to the city.Because it was first performed in Prague, it is popularly known as the Prague Symphony.Mozart's autograph thematic catalogue records December 6, 1786, as the date of completion for this composition. His first letter to Puchberg referred to “concerts in the Casino,” from which he hoped to obtain subscription money in order to repay his debts. In Paris, Mozart's mother is very sick, and she will die shortly after the premiere of this new symphony, his 31st, still known as the "Paris". Throughout his life, he was also interested in music; he had even written an essay on Wagner for the “Revue wagnerienne” in 1885. WOLFGANG AMADÈ MOZART (1756-1791) ... Mozart, en route to Paris with his mother, made an extended and happy visit to Mannheim, home of the finest orchestra in Europe‑‑“an orchestra of generals,” Mozart called it. Finally, the following year, he brought out his first book, which contained the text of the eclogue entitled “L’Après-midi d’un faune.” Mallarmé continued to hope for a theatrical performance; as late as 1891 he promised in print to produce a new version for the theater. The Symphony No. On February 10, 1794 Solomon presented the premiere as part of a concert at Hanover Square that included a piano concerto by Dusseck and a new violin concerto by Viotti (with the composer doing the solo honors). PROGRAM NOTES by Kalindi Bellach ©2017. November 6, 2019. Program Notes: By Lawrence Budmen Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Symphony No.35 in D Major, K.385 (“Haffner”) Siegmund Haffner (a member of a prominent Salzburg mercantile family) commissioned Mozart to write a serenade for his sister’s wedding in 1776. The longest and last symphony that he composed, it is regarded by many critics as among the greatest symphonies in classical music. Allegro Intermission Philadelphia Orchestra concerts are broadcast on WRTI 90.1 FM on Sunday afternoons at 1 PM, and are repeated on Monday evenings at 7 PM on WRTI HD 2. The main theme ends with a momentary turn to the minor just before the cadence; at the corresponding point in the recapitulation, this generates a surprising but completely logical passage in C‑flat minor (written, however, as B minor) before the imitative woodwind theme returns in the tonic. 39 in E-flat major, K.543, was completed on June 26, 1788. The composer was then 22 years old. This was all the more easily accomplished in that the libretto was derived from that of an earlier French opera, Idomenée, whose libretto was written by Antoine Danchet for Campra in 1712. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791) While Mozart's favored instrument was the piano, he was also a highly accomplished s Violin Concerto No.5 in … Finally, though, while living at Kamenka, the home of his sister and her family (and long one of Tchaikovsky’s favorite retreats), he began work on a composition for the Silver Jubilee Exposition. WOLFGANG AMADÈ MOZART (1756-1791)Ballet Music from Idomeneo, Rè di Creta, K.366. 4 IN D MAJOR, BMV 1069 Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) For this event Mozart was given an extraordinary ensemble—the finest orchestra in Europe (the Mannheim orchestra, which had recently been moved to Munich) with twice the usual number of strings and a full wind complement including, for the first time in Mozart’s experience, clarinets. Gone were the heady days of 1784, when he music was in constant demand in Vienna (during one hectic eleven-day period, he gave ten concerts!) 31 "Paris" performed by students of the Royal College of Music", List of symphonies by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, List of spurious/doubtful Mozart symphonies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Symphony_No._31_(Mozart)&oldid=994153432, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz work identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 09:48. Probably he wrote all three of the symphonies with the aim of introducing them at his own concerts. It was an overture dealing with Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, and would call for actual cannons in performance. Enhanced Program Notes: MOZART + HAYDN Portrait of Joseph Haydn by Thomas Hardy, 1791. The “lieto fine” (happy ending) required by the Metastasian operatic style allowed the leading characters to personify a world of reason and forgiveness, a world of self‑control, where rulers do not descend to bloodshed as easily as they do in ours. The surviving fragments of what is now known as Symphony No. Symphony - Symphony - Mozart: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart raised the symphony to heights that in many respects remain unsurpassed. It was commissioned by Joseph Legros, the head of the Concert Spirituel. Mozart and BeethovenPROGRAM NOTES Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Ballet Music from Idomeneo, K. 367: Chaconne and Pas Seul Mozart composed Idomeneo for the Elector of Bavaria’s court in Munich French opera was popular, and a ballet sequence was mandatory Mozart used a theme by Gluck for his first movement Rhythmic consistency and gorgeous melodies make this music perfect … 39. His books are available at the Symphony Store in Davies Symphony Hall. Portrait of Johann Peter Salomon by Thomas Hardy, 1792. Again on June 17 he needed money to pay his landlord and asked Puchberg for a few hundred gulden “until tomorrow.” Yet again on the 27th he wrote to thank Puchberg for the money so freely lent him, but also to report that he needed still more and did not know where to turn for it. 1 in E-flat major, K.16 Symphony No. Joannes Chrisostomus Wolfgang Gottlieb Mozart, who began to call himself Wolfgango Amadeo about 1770 and Wolfgang Amadè in 1777, was born in Salzburg, Austria, on January 27, 1756 and died in Vienna on December 5, 1791. Royal College of Music, London. We are privileged to continue publishing his program notes. Program Notes: Mozart & Beethoven Conductor Xian Zhang leads the Seattle Symphony in music by William Grant Still, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven on Thursday, September 24, 2020 at 7:30pm on Seattle Symphony Live . This, the most lyrical of the final three symphonies, gives no hint of the composer’s distraught condition (thus eloquently disproving the old romantic fallacy that a composer’s music was little more than a reflection of his state of mind). It is not surprising that he felt unable to do anything with such a topic; his creative inertia took the form of a variety of activities to help him avoid composing: revising earlier works, proofreading scores, and renewing his study of English in the hopes of eventually being able to read his favorite English authors, Dickens, Thackeray, and Shakespeare. Menuetto—Trio—Menuetto da capo IV. The Marianne Williams Tobias Program Note Annotator Chair Mozart was riding the crest of his popularity as a composer and pianist in Vienna when he premiered his Piano Concerto, Number 21 on March 9, 1785 at the Burg Theater, in one of his subscription concerts. This music prolongs the emotion of my poem, and sets its scene more vividly than color.” The first performance of the Prelude made Debussy famous overnight; the striking character of this music, which everyone experienced as something quite new, established his personality even in the eyes of those critics who expressed a wish for “an art more neat, more robust, more masculine.”. Symphony No. It was Mozart's first symphony to use clarinets. 31 PROKOFIEV Violin Concerto No. Among these delicious moments are the woodwind additions to the main theme in the strings at the recapitulation. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was born in Kamsko-Votkinsk, Vyatka province, Russia, on May 7, 1840, and died in St. Petersburg on November 6, 1893. The premiere took place on 12 June 1778 in a private performance in the home of Count Karl Heinrich Joseph von Sickingen, the ambassador of the Electorate of the Palatinate. They are all either educational pieces, which could serve students well, or small and easy compositions that might be expected to have a good sale when published. We can only be grateful that the symphonies were composed in any case. We can be sure that poet and composer were personally acquainted by 1892, when they both attended a performance of Maeterlinck’s drama Pelléas et Mélisande, and it is certainly likely that they discussed the musical possibilities of Mallarmé’s “Faune.” Debussy began composition of the Prelude that year, along with most of the other compositions that were to occupy him for the next decade: his String Quartet, the opera Pelléas et Mélisande, the Nocturnes for orchestra, and a number of songs. Mozart thought he could enrich and revivify a form that had enjoyed a long and successful popularity but that was becoming stale and tradition‑ bound. The Three Bs / Symphonic Surprises / Strauss and His Idol. Mozart’s choice of clarinets instead of oboes produces a gentler woodwind sonority especially appropriate to the autumnal lyricism of Symphony No. Having been told that his work would be of no interest as a theatrical piece, he put it aside for a decade. In contrast to the symphony on tonight’s program, which shows the composer in an exalted mode, the Concerto for Flute and Harp is a youthful and charming work, easy on the ears and sprinkled with delicate ornament. © Steven Ledbetter (www.stevenledbetter.com), Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts 300 Water Street, Suite 200 Jacksonville, FL 32202, Administration: 904-354-5479 Giving: 904-358-1479, Plan Your Visit Resources & Finances  News Memberships Employment & Auditions, Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts. 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